Wednesday, January 8, 2014

Flieg's Song

When I joined the SCA many many years ago, I knew I could sing and I knew I could write lyrics and, to a certain extent, poetry. I need guidance, yet didn't know what I needed. The person who helped me was Frederick of Holland, then a Master of Arms living in the Shire of Beau Fleuve (Niagara Falls, NY, and its vicinity).

Flieg, as he is know by just about everyone, and his lady, Lady Nicorlynn of Caer Wydyr took myself and several others under their wings and helped us learn to fly in the SCA. I have known them for over 35 years, and have watched as he won the Crown in the East Kingdom and in the West Kingdom, where they moved after they left the East.

Along with many valuable lessons which he continued to impart across the miles and the years, Flieg left behind a song, which I call "Flieg's Song." It is a simple song which perfectly expresses the joys of being part of the SCA. It is the first song I ever memorized and sang in the Society. I have sung it for years at feasts, in camp, at bardic circles, and in my daughters' nurseries when they were wee lasses. It was their lullaby. I love this song almost as much as I love the man wrote it.

Today, I present it to you.


Flieg's Song

Lyrics - Duke Frederick of Holland
Music (Autumn to May) - Peter Yarrow and Paul Stuckey

Oh, when I was a little boy
I thought those tales so fine
Of Arthur and his noble court
Of Bors and Sir Gawain
Of all the Kings and Princes
And noble firm yet ruth
Now I've found the SCA
And all of it's the truth
Sing Derry-o-Day, Sing Autumn to May

Oh, when I was a little boy
I read of righting wrongs
Of villains base and knights so brave
The noblesse of the strong
I read of griffins, dragons foul
And unicorns so fair
Now I've joined the SCA
And all of them are there
Sing Derry-o-Day, Sing Autumn to May

Oh, when I was a little boy
I longed to be knight
To fight beside my king at war
Break spears at tourneys bright
To be the King myself one day
Hold court in a high hall
Now I've joined the SCA
And I have done them all
Sing Derry-o-Day, Sing Autumn to May

Oh, when I was a little boy
I dreamed of lady fair
With eyes so bright and neck so white
Her love would be my air
I met her at a tourney
her favor's on my sleeve
Yes, now I've found the SCA
I'll never ever leave
Sing Derry-o-Day, Sing Autumn to May



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Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Mansongr, again!

I first blogged about this piece of love poetry in November 2012. I am blogging about it again today to present a new recording of the song.

"If a man composes a love-verse on a woman, then the penalty is full outlawry. The case lies with the woman if she is twenty or older. If she [is younger or] will not have it prosecuted, then the case lies with her legal administrator." - Gragas II, p. 198, K § 238.

A love-verse or mansǫngr was a ticket to a death-sentence in Commonwealth Iceland. As Gunnora, The Viking Answer Lady, says at her site:
The prohibitions against love poetry help to explain why courtships were little practiced in the Viking period. While the goddess Freyja was the patroness of *mansongar*, and delighted in love poetry, mortal women had to be more cautious. Love poems were viewed in law as a distinct slur upon a woman's reputation, suggesting that the poet had had a more intimate knowledge of his beloved than was considered seemly (Foote and Wilson, p. 112). The reputation of a woman reflected upon the honor of her family: if her honor was tarnished, so was that of her father, brothers, uncles, cousins and sons. Any dalliance with a woman's reputation was likely to bring down the wrath of her entire lineage upon the hapless suitor!
Unlike our more lenient society, the Icelanders were very concerned with the appearance of rectitude, especially when it pertained to unmarried women. An unmarried woman could be viewed as "social capital" and anything that would make her less than marriageable was a threat to the economic well-being of her family and herself.

However, there likely would not be a law prohibiting the writing of mansǫngar unless the problem existed. In the poem/song I present to you today, I have tried to imagine what such a mansongr might sound like.

Below, you have the poem which has been set to music, the score, and the standard recording. The melody is a variation on a modernization by Åke Persson of the 14th century Danish melody, Drømde mig en drøm i nat.

Please leave comments at the bottom. Enjoy!


Old Norse VersesPoetic Translation
Silki logi skýja
Sága vakir svæla
singrað kvikligr sǫngr
skyli hjartinn fylla

Grásvíðr liðmjjukr gráreygn
grænblað dýrhallr fagrbuínn
spenja á þin svefna
skirdræpr Freya hýrlega.

Gefa minna gáfar
gulla hornstraum fulla
Horna gjallar hvítings
hlátr fylgja sálsgata

Hrein seiði hǫrbrekka
hjartataugar tugu
skírdræpt sæt fagrgala
sverðsegg gullin skerpa


Beina rausta mína
Njorun silkiskorðu
Beina astir mína
Æskiselja ǫls.

Silken gods-flame
Saga wakes you sultry
Singing brisk song
shall the heart fill.

Willow deer-slope grey-eyed
green-blade lithe bright-dressed
Draw (me) to your dreaming
dazzling Freya smiling.

Give my gifts to me
golden horn-storms full
Horna's ringing ale horn
laughter guides souls-path.

Pure enchanting flax-slope
You tug at my heart-strings
Dazzling soft love song
sharpens golden sword-edge.


My voice rises to you
Goddess of Silk-trees
My love rises to you
Ale's wishing-willow.



Kennings Used
Silki Sága > Silken Goddess > WOMAN
logi skýja > gods-flame > SUN
Grásvíðr dýrhallr > Willow deer-slope > WOMAN
grænblað > green blade > WOMAN
skirdræpr Freya > dazzling Freyja > WOMAN
hornstraum > horn-storms > SONGS
Horna gjallar hvítings > Horn's ringing ale-horn > WOMAN
sálsgata > soul's gate > HEART
hǫrbrekka > flax-slope > WOMAN
fagrgala > love song > WOMAN
sverðsegg > sword's edge > MAN'S LOVE
Njorun silkiskorðu > Goddess of the silk-tree > WOMAN
Æskiselja ǫls > Ale's wishing willow > WOMAN


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Monday, January 6, 2014

The Jarl's Death

This poem is a poetic translation of an Old Norse poem, Endu Rima "Battle's End". It is in dróttkvætt. It has many kennings in it, most of which I leave the reader to puzzle out. The only one I´ll give you is "Troll-woman's horse troop" in verse three. It is from one of several Old Norse kennings for "wolf/wolves" which are often represented as the troll or the giant's horse. This kenning means "the wolf-troop" or the Northern invaders.

I hope you'll enjoy the poem.


The Jarl's Death
Witnessed I wolf-feeder
wise of warriors quarrel
Sternly blade Tyr storm browed
striped swords edge with gore-gild.
Army Thor you offered
Elder dragon fell play
gulls of battle, gallant
good king you fed blood-feast.

Iron-fisted wolf-jarl
attacked you, fame attractor
raiders found retainers
ready to make heads fly
Wisest spear-point wielder
won you victory's sun-burst
Low the ring trees laid you
Lord of men - gold-hoarder.

Troll-woman's horse troop
attracted spear-play fractious
Swayed the birches Southern
sundered in edge-thunder.
Fell in life-flood's fullness
friend of wound-gulls ended.
Suffered jarl-Thor sacred
slain for victory's gaining.

Spied I sudden spear-flight
severed war-garb hardened -
Foemen ringed you fifty
found you with Hirðmen rounded.
Shoulder high bore shield god
steadfast in sword-headwind.
The branches of your breaking
bring night fall to my bright soul.


I have composed music for the poem:


I live for YOUR comments. Please leave them below.

Thursday, November 21, 2013

RAVENS (again)!

And, this time, in English!

Wow! I guess I haven't posted anything in a very very long time. My apologies for the silence, but the muse has not been hanging around very much recently.

I have been writing, but I've more involved in music. At the Pennsic War this year (that being a two-week camping event in the SCA), I purchased a replica Sutton Hoo lyre. I've been slowly learning more about the music that would have heard in 12th-13th century Iceland and attempting to write some tunes to accompany my poetry. That has become my excuse for not writing new poetry.

However, recently I've been working in English, transforming my ON poetry into English. In this, I attempt to write good dróttkvætt while keeping or improving the meaning of the ON original. I'm also working on my knowledge of ON grammar, in order to improve my poetry in the original tongue. That will take some time, but I hope to publish some revised poetry during the winter months.

So, here is the first of two poems I have reworked. It is about ravens.


Gaze on sword storm's glory
gore geese black-eyed soaring.
Hear in harshest whispers
horrid tales of corpse-talk.
Bandying secrets baleful
Baldr's blood-hawks huddle -
Hoar's minions lone hear
harm trees Hel-bound quelléd

Silent fly the soul hawks
Swans drink wine from wound fjord
to gold-tongued sword pierced gallants
goslings sharp-beaked harken.
Tales from fallen telling
Tyr's grace brings to hersir
Offer gifts most awe-filled
arm-rings fit for Herjans.

Home fly swarms of Hugin
(Hanged-gods coal black henchmen - )
Guide the noble guardsmen
(glory sing of war-folk)
Maids of Viðris mighty
(mind hoard keep you kindly)
Savour souls of sword trees
(and sagas sing of ring-gods)


There are many kennings there. A couple might need expelling. First, in verse in verse one, Hoar is an Óðinn name. Also, in verse two, the last line refers to Herjan, another Óðinn name, as is Viðris in verse three. "Hoar's minions" is a raven-kenning; and "Maids of Viðris" is a kenning for valkyries.

The other word that may jar slightly is "quelléd" at the close of verse one. I chose the word based on the ON kvelja "to torment". Thus, for my purposes, "quelled" means "tormented, tortured."

Please let me know your questions, thoughts, and ideas. And, I'll be back very soon with another new blogpost. Promise!

Friday, August 16, 2013

Transformational Poetry

So, in reading Up Jim River by Michael Flynn, I came across an interesting analogy for translation:
"What a tangled path when we find these Emrikii," Sofwari said. "We have to think in Gaelectic, our earwigs will render that in the loora nuxrjes'r. Watershank will translate that into the tanga cru'tye, and Skins will translate that to murgãglaiz. Any rabbit of thought that makes it through that bramble will surely be skinned by then."
That's how I feel sometimes when I'm moving my poetry through its transformation from English to Old Norse - I wonder how much of the rabbit will come through the bramble patch unscathed and how it will be changed.

The poem I'm publishing today is an example of this process. I am giving you the original poem which is about a far more cruel transformation, followed by the Old Norse transformation with the usual word-by-word and prose-order translations.

This poem is an extended metaphor. I leave it to the reader to puzzle it out.

On morning's light you'd go to let
the fish come jump into your net
and every one you could recall.
No matter be they large or small
You'd fish and each became a grain
to think upon when morn brought rain
to darken skies. You'd calmly set
your bait, your hooks, and then your net.

Your bait, your hooks, and then your net
in high noon's warmth you'd always set
to bring home more. And then compare
with those you caught from everywhere
and some you'd keep, still more you'd free
to go back to the loving sea -
For now the sea your net fills full
with fish, to think upon and mull.

With fish to think upon and mull
until they overflow the hull
of ship. And yet by night your seine
unravels and by day your mein
no longer pulls a net to give
you fish, but rather pulls a sieve.
And thus into the night you sail
but fish no more, your nets have failed.


And here it is after its transformation:

Old Norse Verses Word-by-Word Translation Prose Order Translation
Fald-dægi fiski róinn
fyrir laxar glóinn
ófut þín net þykku
fiskum grípa upp kvikku;
Hnykkjat bendu netja
bustar fengsæll bretja
aptr húgaðir hverjum
hafs alriðinn hirðum.
Day-break fisher rowing
for salmon glowing;
you wove your net thick
fish to catch quick.
You pulled cords of nets
hauling fish turn-upwards;
after remembered every
sea all-writhing herd.
Fisher at day-break rowing
for gleaming salmon;
you wove your tight net
to catch quick fish.
The nets' cords you pulled,
hauling fish turned-upwards;
After you recalled every
writhing sea-herd.

Monday, July 8, 2013

A Dróttkvætt for a Poet & Brewer

This past Saturday, Lord Magnus Hvalmagi was inducted into the Order of the Maunche by TRM Gregor & Kenna, King & Queen of the East. I was honored to write the scroll text. The form is the dreaded dróttkvætt. The translation & notes follow the scroll text. The very talented Lady Isabel Chamberlaine calligraphed and limned the scroll.


You can hear it here:


Scroll wording for Magnus Hvalmagi's Maunche

Margnum beinad mikill
meistari raust hrosta
skaðamaðr sanngõfugr
salgauks  bruggað õlblóð.
Fræði gróf at fornskrár
fróða elszk hann sõgu
klifsstaf tárit korni
kallað frem hvalmegi.

Heitað bytár á hverlegi
hvel maðr gullin svelgas -
fleyliðit hann Freyjas
fljóta sem munvágs Dáins
Dimmt þungliga drupu
dvergregn á eyru herrar
áðr Magnus gõrvirõls
á dómi með sõgu koma.

Õlhaf bitið Óðins
ok hornstraum klari fagreygr
Kenna drottning kenst ok
konungr Gregor greypr
Magnus bjorwit beina á
bróðerni stuka ok duppuð
með guðvefr stuka ok gullin
hann albezt hvalmegi

Dæmað þess sexdagr heyannirs, fertugátt ár stofnanar í Líndalfylki á herbúðir.

Gregor, konungr
Kenna, drottning


Many call out for the
mighty master of malt
most noble slayer of hallcock
brews a bloody ale.
Craft-lore dug from ancient
scrolls Lore-wise makes him -
Whale mighty calls forth
Tears of of gold corn's wave-prow.

Man of golden gurges brewed
bee-tears to cauldron liquor -
His aleships of Freya
float as Dains blithe waves.
Heavily dripped the dark
dwarfrain on the master's ears
ere Magnus ale-maker
brought his tales to court.

Odin's ale-sea and clear
hornstream moved
faireyed Kenna queen and
fiercest Gregor king -
Beer-wise Magnus lifted they
to the Sleeve Order and
clad best goosesmart whale-might
 in sleeves of perse and gold.

Proclaimed this sixth day of the harvest season, the forty-eighth year of the Founding,  in Flax-dale-Shire, at War Camp.

Gregor King

Kenna Queen



Verse 1:

meistari hrosta > master of malt > brewer

skaðamaðr sanngõfugr salgauks > most noble slayer of the hallcock > the poet seems to make reference to a ritual slaying of a rooster, somehow associated with  õlblóð or blood-ale.

ságufrúða > Lore-wise > learned in research

klifsstaf tárit korni > tears of of gold corn's wave-prow > ale or beer.

Hvalmegi  > Whale-mighty > reference to the subject's byname.

Verse 2:

Heitað bytár á hverlegi  > Brewed bee-tears to cauldron-liquor > "bee-tears" are honey; "cauldron-liquor" can denote both ale/mead AND poetry.

hvel maðr gullin svelgas > man of golden gurges (whirlpool) > reference to the subject's shield.

fleyliðit Freyjas > Freya's aleships > poetry.

munvágs Dáins > bright waves of Dain (a dwarf name) > verses or ale.

Dimmt dverregn > Dark dwarfrain > poetry. Heavy, stolid poetry.

gõrvirõls > maker of ale > brewer and poet.

Verse 3:

Ólhaf óðins ok hornstraum klari > Odin's ale-sea and clear horn-streams > poetry & ale.

bjórwit > beer-wise > skilled in brewing.

bróðerni stuka  > sleeve brotherhood > Order of the Maunche.

gaglbjartr > goose-bright or goose-smart > intelligent

guðvefr > good-weave > a costly fabric for Kings > hence, metaphorically, purple.

Prose close:

heyannirs > harvest months > July and August.

stofnanar > the Founding's Year > Anno Societatis

Lindalfylki  >  Flax-dale-Shire > Shire of Glenn Linn.

Wednesday, March 20, 2013

"Spring is Here!" (Meginn drápa riki - drapa for King Maynard)

"Sprrrring is here ..... Sprrrring is here. Life is skittles and life is beer! I think the loveliest time of the year is the spring. I do, don't you? 'course you do. But there's one thing that makes spring complete for me, And makes ev'ry sunday a treat for me." - Tom Lehrer

"Berið ér aptr, es várar, fleyvangs til Orkneyja, [Carry back, when it is spring, across the ship-plain to the Orkneys,]" - Sigmundr Ǫngull

In Spring, a young man's fancy turns toward ... sword-play! Raiding! Battle! Blood! Gore! What more could a true warrior ask for?

This poem, Meginn drápa riki, is about just that. For as the sun rises higher in the sky, the fjords thaw and the warships can head across the plains of puffins to find new treasure.

The poem is in dróttkvætt and is loaded with kennings. It is written for Maynard and Liadain, who will become King and Queen of Aethelmearc in April. Maynard's name means "Strength" in German, and Meginn is both an Old Icelandic adjective with the same meaning and a 14th century Norwegian name.

Recordings will happen, in a bit.


Meginn drápa riki (Drápa for King Maynard)

Old Norse Verses Poetic Translation

Veðr vill blásask Viðurs
er várvíkingar fara.
Er sólarvagn sigla
skúrir Gauts vill fljúgask.

Eptir Skaði aprast
askar hafði blásit
ok grundar sofa gengit
innan grip hennar svipinn,
þá fjǫrðuísa Njarðar
fríðka munnar gliðna
atatata ítar
ok ístannar þeirra gnísta.

Boðit, máttkar mœðir
málmrunna aldrunur,
vápna gnýlinns viðir
viggjálfar greiða seglhund.
Fyr ræða jarl ok riki
með ruglandinn huldu -
með Vikingum á vári
veðri Hôars koma.


þrekramr heyrðuð þarlands
þengill orðum benrǫgns -
konung boðaði kinngrár
kattar lundar atgeirs:
Nú seglbúinn austansjór
skildir brands skeiðar -
Ǫðlings rikis afmá
andmáligir brandar.

Hersa dróttinn heyrðuð
hugstrangr dreka fluginn:
engis lúru lundar
landgramr leiddi randa.
"Foldir sumars fámask
fagrastr hrifsa, lifra!"
kambi kallaði gullin
konung miðjulondum.


Virðar óþyrmir varga
vestan á borðhestum
fljúgusk á feginum
með fleinþollar erlendis.
At skǫmmu, Stœrir gumr
sótr súða rotaðir -
kafþjórs brenna kefir
kattar dróttin máttigr.

Brima, þjóðar bragning,
bǫrð renndusk at jǫrðu
ok á gustum hljópu geirs
gífrs hestar hlessa.
Þá fló drekinn dǫkkhárr
at drifum Hóars rifsinn -
med angr ýs ok undreyr,
auðvin, songst dauð þeirra.


Merkum snuask at myrkum,
mattigr yngva áttkonr
ok gjofvinr leiddir vendværr
vaskast hersa fastligar.
Drotinn austum jofra
oddum merjiðr berat
ok kisar hel valkasti,
konungr, hafði brunnit.

Dróttning brímr dómsorð
drekifólkum draga.
hveiti hræteina
hjálms víðir hafði bítat
Hrafnsvini flaut í rennr
heiti sár af hveitum.
Aðalbórinn eyðir
yfir svikfolk vinna.


Siðan hugaðr sigÞróttr ---
sármenn á dǫgum fornum
linntanna þryngoss ellandr
--- leiddar lundar gunnborðs.
Siðan at þer stedfast ---
sigrhorna at hlífðrum
uppdalum blásisk austkendr
--- augum renna meyja

Hegni jarla hyggiligr
hjalm-Njǫrðungum kallir.
Almdrósar drótinn orkar
árum hagla bogna.
Konungr svarum kringjir
krossklædd Ýtar ôsu.
hafs þík svarum hyrþǫll
hundmargr þekkjandar þunnblás.


Odin's wind will blow
when spring-vikings roam.
When the sun's wain sails,
The rains of Gaut will fly.

After Skaði harshest
the ash trees has blasted
and sleeping are the green fields
in her sweeping grip,
then Njorð's handsome mouth,
fjords of ice are breaking -
chattering and gnashing
glorious ice teeth rumble

You ordered, mighty troubler
of battle-runners thundering,
din-snakes trees to armor
and steed-elves fast to sail hounds.
(for) jarl and king are plotting
with secrecy confounding,
(and) Hóar's mighty storms come
with Vikings in the Spring.


In far-off land you heard
kings' words of bloody-rain
how king of cats commanded
grey-cheeked trees of halberds:
in eastern seas are sail-bound
war-prows' shield-providers -
now come contentious fire brands
to savage noble marklands.

You heard, our Warrior ruler
flying dragons strong-willed:
the prince of the meadow's halibut
led the trees of the rims.
"Fields of summer fairest
let us pillage, brothers!"
cried the gold-hatted -
the King of the middle lands.


Plank-horse riding western men,
outlaw-crusher, joined you -
joined in battle joyful
to stop the spear-firs foreign.
Soon, soot-horses of the plank
you stunned, strengthener of men
the sea-ox of the deep you burned
and harmed the cat jarl mighty.

Then ran aground the planks of surf,
prince of men most valiant,
and stunned the troll's horses leaping,
did the Aethling's spear-gust
Then flew the plundering dragon -
into Hóars snow-storm deadly
treasure-friend, you sang their death
with wound-reeds and yew´s sorrow.


You faced the darkened Eastern banners
mighty heir of kings.
And lead most valiant war-men sturdy,
bounty's-friend hard-pleased.
Lord of princes, brought you crushing
to mighty Eastern armies
and you, our mighty king, have burned
the corpse-pile of the kittens.

King fiery dooms-word
to dragon-army brought
wheat of carrion-twigs
helm-trees have bitten.
Ravens wine flowed from running
hot wounds from axes.
Noble-born destroyer
over evil vanquished.


Again, o bold victory-Þróttr ---
as snake-fanged wound-men
as of old surround us
--- you lead the trees of battle-boards.
Again, o stedfast victory maid---
with eastern victory-horns
in hidden up-dales blasting
--- our yearning eyes beseech you.

Jarl-punisher wisest calls
forth the helms of Norðir -
Queen of the bow-maid summons
messengers of the hailstones of the bow.
Cross-clad King, we, the cunning
gods of shields, answer.
Fir of the sea-fire, we, the many
knowers of the linen-cord answer.




There are three recurring images that may need explanation: first, the Kingdom of the East (Northeastern US & Eastern Canada) uses a blue tyger as its totem; this explains the references to King of Cats, etc. Second, the Middle Kingdom (Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky) has the dragon as its totem; thus the dragon references. Finally, although it only makes a cameo appearance, the Kingdom of Ealdormere (Ontario) is the home of the wolves; that's where that reference comes from.

A final note: yes, I know that kisar valkasti is pretty danged gruesome. All I can say is that "War isn't for the Squeamish."

Kennings Used


Veðr Viðurs > Odin's weather > BATTLE/WAR
várvíkingar > Vikings of Spring > RAIDERS
sólarvagn > Sun's wain > SUN
skúrir Gauts > showers of Gautr > ARROWS


Skaði > goddess of Winter > WINTER
munnar Njarðar > Njorð's mouth > ICE
ístannar > ice teeth > ICE FLOES


máttkar mœðir málmrunna aldrunur > mighty troubler of battle-runners > troubler of warriors > KING
gnýlinns viðir > din-snakes trees > sword trees > WARRIORS
viggjálfar > war-elves > SAILORS
seglhund > sail-hound > SHIP
veðri Hôars > Hoar´s storms > WAR


orðum benrǫgns > words of bloody rains > OMENS
konung kattar > King of Cats > EASTERN KING
lundar atgeirs > trees of halberds > WARRIORS
brands > SWORDS
skildir skeiðar > shield providers > WARRIORS
Ǫðlings rikis > Aethling´s realm > noble realm > ÆTHELMEARC
andmáligir brandar > contentious brands > WARRIORS


Hersa hugstrangr > warrior ruler > KING MAYNARD
drótinn dreka > King of the dragon > MIDDLE KING>
engis lúru landgramr > land-ruler of the meadow-fish > King of the snake > MIDREALM KING
lunar randa > trees of rims > trees of shields > WARRIORS
kambi gullin > gold-hatted > KING


Virðar vestan > men of the west (who ride plank-horses) > SAILORS/WARRIORS
borðhestum > plank-horses > SHIPS
fleinþollar > spear-firs > WARRIORS
sótr súða > soot-horses > WOLVES
Stœrir gumr > strengthener of men > KING
kafþors kefir > sea-ox of the deep > SHIPS
kattar drótinn > King of cats > EASTERN KING


þjóðar bragning > prince of men > KING
bǫrð brim > planks of the surf > SHIPS
gustum geirs > wind of spears > BATTLE/ATTACK
gífrs hestar > troll's horses > WOLVES
drekinn dǫkkhárr > dark-haired dragon > KING OF THE MIDDLE
drifum Hóars > Hóar's storm > Odin's storm > WAR
angr ýs > Yew's sorrow > FIRE
undreyr > wound-reeds > ARROWS
auðvin > treasure-friend > KING


yngva áttkonr > heir of kings > KING MAYNARD
gjofvinr > bounty-friend > KING MAYNARD
hersa > war-men > WARRIORS
drótinn jofar > lord of princes > KING MAYNARD
kisar valkasti > corpsepile of kittens > DEAD EASTERN WARRIORS


drekifólkum > dragon-army > MIDDLE WARRIORS
hveiti hræteina > wheat of carrion-twigs > SPEARS
hjálms víðir > helmet-trees > WARRIORS
Hrafnsvini > wine of ravens > BLOOD
Aðalbórinn eyðir > noble-born destroyer > KING MAYNARD


sigÞróttr > victory-Þróttr >victory-Odin > KING MAYNARD
linntanna sármenn > snake-fanged wound-men > MIDREALM WARRIORS
lundar gunnborðs > trees of battle-boards > WARRIORS
sigrhorna > victory-horns > WAR CRIES
renna meyja > victory-maiden > QUEEN LAIDAIN


Hegni jarla > conqueror of jarls > KING MAYNARD
hjalm-Njǫrðungum > helms ofNjǫrð > WARRIORS
Almdrósar drótinn > Ruler of elm-maids > ruler of valkyries > QUEEN LIADAIN
hagla bogna > hail of bows > FLIGHT OF ARROWS
konungr krossklædd > cross-clad king > KING MAYNARD (after his coat of arms)
Ýtar ôsu > gods of spears > WARRIORS
hafs hyrþǫll - fir of sea-fire > fir of gold > QUEEN LIADAIN
þekkjandar þunnblás knowers of the linen-cord > ARCHERS



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